The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.
Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine, food, and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as toxicity or infection.
Fungi as Source of food
Fungi used as food sources, in particular, the cheese fungi, the truffles, and the fungi used for drink fermentation such as beer, wine, and sake. We discuss their history of consumption by humans and the genomic mechanisms of adaptation during artificial selection.
Fungi as Source of Medicine
Many secondary metabolites of fungi are of great commercial importance. Fungi naturally produce antibiotics to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria, limiting their competition in the natural environment. Important antibiotics, such as penicillin and the cephalosporins, can be isolated from fungi. Valuable drugs isolated from fungi include the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine (which reduces the risk of rejection after organ transplant), the precursors of steroid hormones, and ergot alkaloids used to stop bleeding. Psilocybin is a compound found in fungi such as Psilocybe semilanceata and Gymnopilus junonius, which have been used for their hallucinogenic properties by various cultures for thousands of years. Some fungi attack insects and, therefore, can be used as natural pesticides.
Ethnomycology is the study of the historical uses and sociological impact of fungi and can be considered a subfield of ethnobotany or ethnobiology. An entheogen is a class of psychoactive substances that induce any type of spiritual experience aimed at development. The term entheogen is often chosen to contrast recreational use of the same drugs. Although in theory the term includes fungi used for such purposes as tinder, medicine (medicinal mushrooms) and food (including yeast), it is often used in the context of the study of psychoactive mushrooms such as psilocybin mushrooms, the Amanita muscaria mushroom, and the ergot fungus.
Mycosis is a fungal infection of animals, including humans. Mycoses are common and a variety of environmental and physiological conditions can contribute to the development of fungal diseases. Inhalation of fungal spores or localized colonization of the skin may initiate persistent infections; therefore, mycoses often start in the lungs or on the skin. Fungal infections of the skin was the 4th most common disease in 2010 affecting 984 million people. An estimation of 1.6 million people die each year of fungal infections.
- Track 1-1Fungal genetics and Biology
- Track 1-2Ethnomycology
- Track 1-3Fungi as Source of food
- Track 1-4Fungi as Source of Medicine
These infections are commonly called 'ringworm', but are not caused by worms. They are superficial infections of the skin, hair or nails caused by a variety of fungi which otherwise live in the soil, on animals, or sometimes only on people. Infections are spread by direct skin contact (with humans or animals), or indirectly from contaminated articles on floors or in the soil. Shared changing rooms and showers are often a source of tinea, while some infections are spread by sharing of items such as towels. People shed tiny pieces of skin all the time and if these contain a small amount of the fungus, it is able to survive in the environment and cause infection in someone else.
- Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever)
- C. gattii Infection
- Fungal Nail Infections
- Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
- Candida auris
- Fungal Eye Infections
Fungal Infectious Diseases or Medical mycology is the study of mycoses and variety of physiological conditions and environmental are contributing to evolution of fungal diseases. In immune-compromised hosts systemic fungal infections are usually seen due to the inhalation or localization of fungal spores may persistent of systemic fungal infections lead to pulmonary infections. Fungal infections are usually seen on skin, nails, and hair. Common fungal infections are intertrigo, thrush, and pityriasis versicolor, athlete’s foot, nail infections, ring worm of the body, ring worm of the groin.
Fungal Genetics and Biology, formerly known as Experimental Mycology, publishes experimental investigations of fungi and their traditional allies that relate structure and function to growth, reproduction, morphogenesis, and differentiation. This journal especially welcomes studies of gene organization and expression and of developmental processes at the cellular, subcellular, and molecular levels. The journal also includes suitable experimental inquiries into fungal cytology, biochemistry, physiology, genetics, and phylogeny.
Fungal Genetics and Biology publishes basic research conducted by mycologists, cell biologists, biochemists, geneticists, and molecular biologists. Research Areas include:
Early Diagnosis of fungal infection is critical to effective treatment. There are many impediments to diagnosis such as a diminishing number of clinical mycologists, cost, time to result, and requirements for sensitivity and specificity. In addition, fungal diagnostics must meet the contrasting needs presented by the increasing diversity of fungi found in association with the use of immunosuppressive agents in countries with high levels of medical care and the need for diagnostics in resource-limited countries where large numbers of opportunistic infections occur in patients with AIDS. Traditional approaches to diagnosis include direct microscopic examination of clinical samples, histopathology, culture, and serology. Emerging technologies include molecular diagnostics and antigen detection in clinical samples. Innovative new technologies that use molecular and immunoassay platforms have the potential to meet the needs of both resource-rich and resource-limited clinical environments.
Diagnostic Methods for Fungal Infections
1.Direct examination: wet mount, HPE, flourescent staining
a) Serological methods- antigen detection, antibody detection
b) Tests for detection of metabolites
c) Tests for detection of CMI (cell mediated immunity)
d) Molecular methods
e) Others- MALDI-TOF MS
Pathogenic fungi cause disease in humans and in other organisms, which is called as fungal pathogenesis. Fungal pathogens can be divided into two general classes’ primary pathogens and opportunistic pathogens. Currently, there has been a dramatic increase in fungal infections of this type, in particular candidiasis, cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, and zygomycosis. More recently described mycoses of this category include hyalohyphomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis.
The superficial mycoses -these are superficial cosmetic fungal infections of the skin or hair shaft.
Dermatophytosis - ringworm or tinea - ringworm of scalp, glabrous skin, and nails caused by a closely related group of fungi known as dermatophytes.
The subcutaneous mycoses - these are chronic, localized infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue following the traumatic implantation of the aetiologic agent.
Infectious disease mycology - these are fungal infections of the body caused by dimorphic fungal pathogens.
When the growth season has started and your cultivated plants are large enough for the mulching (green manuring) process to begin, you start adding the nettle substrate with the mycorrhizae spores to your cultivated area. First, apply the mulching material (whether lawn cuttings or other grasses) to the plant rows and, in humid weather, add to the rows some wide sprays of your microbiological inoculum. Before spreading your substrate, make sure to add to it cold water (as cold as you can get) for some 5 to 10 seconds, and then increase the temperature quickly to about 20oC. This is to activate the sporulation process, that is, to see to it that the mycorrhizae spores start to grow hyphae that will subsequently hook on to your cultivated plant roots.
Edible mushrooms are the fleshy fruit bodies of several species of macro-fungi. They can appear either below ground or above ground where they may be picked by hand. Edibility may be defined by criteria that include the absence of poisonous effects on humans and desirable taste and aroma. Mushrooms play extremely important roles in the ecosystem, and some are famously delicious. Some are also famously deadly. In recent years has focused on various immunological and anti-cancer properties of certain mushrooms, they also offer other potentially important health benefits, including antioxidants, anti-hypertensive and cholesterol-lowering properties, liver protection, as well as anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-viral and anti-microbial properties. These properties have attracted the interest of many pharmaceutical companies, which are viewing the medicinal mushroom as a rich source of innovative biomedical molecules. Mushrooms contain disease-busting polysaccharides, glycoproteins, ergosterols, triterpenoids, and immune-boosting chemicals. They can also be used to bolster a declining immune system during aging.
Fungi occur in all type of environment on earth and plays vital roles in most ecosystems. These are the major decomposers along with bacteria in most terrestrial and some aquatic ecosystems, and therefore play a critical role in biogeochemical cycles and in many food webs play an essential role in nutrient cycling by degrading organic matters to inorganic molecules, which can then re-enter to different anabolic metabolic pathways in plants and other organisms.
Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their biochemical properties and genetic characteristic and their use to humans as a source medicine, food, and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection. Many fungi produce antibiotics, toxins and other secondary metabolites. Fungi have recently helped to produce other important drugs. cyclosporin, an anti-rejection substance that has helped in the development of organ-transplant surgery over the last few years.
Opportunistic fungi refers to those fungi that normally would not cause infections in otherwise healthy people but are able to cause infection under certain circumstances such as immune defficiency, cancer, organ transplant, neutropenic patients, diabetes, debilitated patients and patients on long term antibiotics.
Many fungi are opportunists and are usually not pathogenic except in an immunocompromised host. Causes of immunocompromise include AIDS, azotemia, diabetes mellitus, lymphoma, leukemia, other hematologic cancers, burns, and therapy with corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, or antimetabolites. Patients who spend more than several days in an ICU can become compromised because of medical procedures, underlying disorders, and/or undernutrition. Typical opportunistic systemic fungal infections (mycoses) include
Biotechnology offers the potential for brand spanking new industrial processes that need less energy and are supported renewable raw materials. Some of the foremost necessary organisms employed in biotechnology are fungi. Fungi are employed in several industrial processes, like the assembly of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, polyhydric alcohols, pigments, lipids, and glycolipids. A number of these products are made commercially whereas others are probably valuable in biotechnology, additionally to the multiple reaction sequences of fermentations, fungi are very helpful in polishing off biotransformation processes. These are getting essential to the fine-chemical trade within the production of single-isomer intermediates. Deoxyribonucleic acid technology, which incorporates yeasts and different fungi as hosts, has markedly exaggerated markets for microorganism enzymes.
The presence of fungi in food has been both advantage and problems to food stores. Fungi can spoil large quantities of food and produce dangerous toxins that threaten human health; however, fungal spoilage in certain foods can produce a unique, highly prized food source and there are some very effective fungal derived medicines. A thorough understanding of the vast body of knowledge relating to food mycology requires an inclusive volume that covers both the beneficial and detrimental roles of fungi in our food supply. These include food groups such as bakery products, dairy products, beverages (e.g. fruit juices), dried fruits and nuts, and confectionary. Fungi can also present health risks by the production of specific toxic agents called mycotoxins, which are often poorly understood, but are being increasingly recognised as agents of both acute and chronic toxicity in humans and animals. This creates an opportunity in research towards the fungi and yeasts, and the problems they can cause in foods, in terms of spoilage and health effects. It will present a balanced view of the importance of these agents in the context of the modern food industry.
Tinder fungus grows on trees throughout the temperate and boreal regions of the northern hemisphere, and is found in Europe, northern Asia and in North America. In the north of its range it occurs mostly on birch trees (Betula spp.), but in parts of Europe it is widespread on beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) and also grows on sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) and aspen (Populus tremula). In North America it is most common on birches, but also occurs on maples (Acer spp.), poplars (Populus spp.) and alders (Alnus spp.). It has been recorded from Pakistan, northern Iran and Turkey, where it grows on poplars (Populus spp.), while in northern Japan it grows on Japanese beech trees (Fagus crenata). Tinder fungus has also been found on the island of Dominica in the Caribbean.
Tinder fungus occurs in much of mainland Scotland, but is most abundant in the Highlands, because the birch trees (Betula pendular and Betula pubescens) that are its main host are so widespread there. It is absent from Orkney and the Outer Hebrides, but occurs on Mull and Skye, and has also been recorded on Colonsay. In Scotland it is rarely found on species other than birch, but occasionally is seen on beech (which is its main host in the south of England), alder and aspen.
Mycorrhizal technology can profitably be applied in different forest areas for better nutrient utilization and more effective land use. Soils in Bangladesh forest either poor in P and other essential nutrients or have an immobile form of P similar to other tropical soils. In such condition, mycorrhizal fungi can play an important role in improving the plant growth by increasing the supply to roots with mineral nutrients in the soil . The application of mycorrhizal fungi will be suitable for inoculating the plants in a limited area with small amount of inoculum of the fungi. In this system, the external hyphal network of mycorrhizal fungi plays an important role in nutrient uptake, especially for those ions that are not very mobile in soil solution
Fungi are organisms that assemble in complicated and dynamic communities. For the foremost half, fungi grow as a network of skinny filaments on the substrates like soil, wood, insect guts, living plant components, etc. which makes troublesome to find. Some species are refined in vitro; but the overwhelming majority isn't amenable to culturing, typically deed mycologists with very little to figure with through an experiment. Historically, taxonomists are answerable for enterprise the task of uncovering new fungi. Describing new species conjointly need the deposition of voucher specimens in official collections. The last decade witnessed a considerable increase in studies centered on fungal community ecology. Conducting fungal surveys may be a tedious semi-permanent undertaking and for an extended time Mycologists relied on the fruit body occurrence or culturing of fungal isolates to document species incidence and site-specific fungal selection. Though such ways will offer necessary info, they have an inclination to produce incomplete community descriptions for the explanations represented in preceding sections.
The most important practical teams of mycorrhizas fungi keep company with plant roots by creating a sheath of fungal tissue enclosing short root tips and a web with inward filament growth between plant root cells. For the foremost half, electronic warfare fungi belong to the phylum Basidiomycota and keep company with several plant families. The recent development of massively parallel DNA sequencing allowed for the group action of genomic and meta-genomic approaches owing to price reduction and wide avails and it's been welcomed by the fungal analysis community, because it permits rapid studies of deeper scope than are doable so far. Fungal communities will currently be represented supported a lot of sequences in an exceedingly very short timeframe and at a comparatively reduced price.
Fungal skin infections are caused when fungal spores invade dead keratin cells in the body. The infections are highly contagious and can be transmitted from person to person very easily, but they can also be found in communal spaces. Fungus breeds well in damp, warm conditions, so places like leisure centres, swimming pools, children’s soft play areas and shared bathrooms can be full of fungus if they are not cleaned properly.
Some of the most frequently occurring fungal skin infections include ringworm, intertrigo, athlete’s foot and tinea capitis. Though the symptoms of these infections can be unpleasant and irritating, they’re rarely dangerous, and can be treated easily with the appropriate topical cream or oral medications.
1.Bacterial skin infections
Bacterial skin infections often begin as small, red bumps that slowly increase in size. Some bacterial infections are mild and easily treated with topical antibiotics, but other infections require an oral antibiotic. Different types of bacterial skin infections include:
2. Viral skin infections
Viral skin infections are caused by a virus. These infections range from mild to severe. Different types of viral infections include:
- shingles (herpes zoster)
- Molluscum contagiosum
- hand, foot, and mouth disease
3. Fungal skin infections
These types of skin infections are caused by a fungus and are most likely to develop in damp areas of the body, such as the feet or armpit. Some fungal infections aren’t contagious, and these infections are typically non-life-threatening.
Different types of fungal infections:
- athlete’s foot
- yeast infection
- nail fungus
- oral thrush
- diaper rash
4. Parasitic skin infection
These types of skin infections are caused by a parasite. These infections can spread beyond the skin to the bloodstream and organs. A parasitic infection isn’t life-threatening but can be uncomfortable.
Different types of parasitic skin infections include:
- cutaneous larva migrans
Most industrial processes used fungal cells for the bulk manufacturing of organic acids, proteins, enzymes, secondary metabolites and active pharmaceutical ingredients in white and red biotechnology. A number of challenges now need to be addressed to improve our strategies to control fungal pathogenicity and to optimise the use of fungi as sources for novel compounds. In addition to the multiple reaction sequences of fermentations, fungi are extremely useful in carrying out biotransformation processes. Molecular manipulations have been added to mutational techniques as a means of increasing yields of microbial processes and in the discovery of new drugs.
Bacterial and fungal interactions can form a range of physical associations that depend on various modes of molecular communication for their development and functioning. The combination of physical associations and molecular interactions between fungi and other microbes can result in a variety of different outcomes for each partner. In turn, these changes may affect the influence of the fungal-microbe complex. Applications are found in various biological fields i.e. Food processing, fermentation and brewing, cheese ripening, bioremediation of pollutants, natural product discovery and synthetic biology.
Filamentous fungi are used by industry for manufacture of a large variety of useful products. The products include metabolites, enzymes and food. Fungal cells can grow at different environmental conditions and environmental diversity. The chemical and physical conditions used for fungal propagation which depends up on fungal genetics and biology will have a great impact on the capability of these cells to accumulate the desired product(s). Mevinolin, cyclosporine A, β-lactam antibiotics, pneumocandins, ergotamine, strobilurins, and mycophenolic acid are examples of revolutionary pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals that have a fungal origin in spite of the success of bioactive fungal metabolites as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals and fungi remain s an essentially untapped source of medicines because only a small fraction of the vast fungal kingdom has been explored for bioactive metabolite production. However, recent advances in the genetics of microbial secondary metabolite biosynthesis, genomics, and metabolic engineering will play an ever-increasing role in facilitating fungal bioactive metabolites discovery.
The high rates of morbidity and mortality caused by fungal infections are associated with the current limited antifungal arsenal and the high toxicity of the compounds. Additionally, identifying novel drug targets is challenging because there are many similarities between fungal and human cells. The most common antifungal targets include fungal RNA synthesis and cell wall and membrane components, though new antifungal targets are being investigated. Nonetheless, fungi have developed resistance mechanisms, such as overexpression of eï¬„ux pump proteins and biofilm formation, emphasizing the importance of understanding these mechanisms.
To address these problems, different approaches to preventing and treating fungal diseases are described in this review, with a focus on the resistance mechanisms of fungi, with the goal of developing efficient strategies to overcoming and preventing resistance as well as new advances in antifungal therapy. Due to the limited antifungal arsenal, researchers have sought to improve treatment via different approaches, and the synergistic effect obtained by the combination of antifungals contributes to reducing toxicity and could be an alternative for treatment.
Another important issue is the development of new formulations for antifungal agents, and interest in nanoparticles as new types of carriers of antifungal drugs has increased. In addition, modifications to the chemical structures of traditional antifungals have improved their activity and pharmacokinetic parameters. Moreover, a different approach to preventing and treating fungal diseases is immunotherapy, which involves different mechanisms, such as vaccines, activation of the immune response and inducing the production of host antimicrobial molecules.
Finally, the use of a mini-host has been encouraging for in vivo testing because these animal models demonstrate a good correlation with the mammalian model; they also increase the speediness of as well as facilitate the preliminary testing of new antifungal agents. In general, many years are required from discovery of a new antifungal to clinical use. However, the development of new antifungal strategies will reduce the therapeutic time and/or increase the quality of life of patients.
Yeast infection treatments, which fail to respond to conventional anti-fungal drug treatments, have become increasingly reported, just like antibiotic resistant bacterial infections have over the years. There are many people who just don’t seem to respond to the azole class of drugs anymore, such as Fluconazole. This is partly due to the widespread, long-term use of azoles for treating and preventing yeast related health issues.
Recent studies have show that exposure to azole treatment decreases the antifungal activity of amphotericin B. Two other types of antifungal drugs have also been shown to be active against azole-resistant candida yeast infections, they are Voriconazole (Vfend) which showed enhanced activity against fluconazole-resistant candidiasis and another drug called caspofungin (Cancidas) which has also shown activity against azole-resistant strains of candidiasis. No doubt there will be side effects associated with these antifungals as well.
Because of the widespread antifungal drug resistance, taking any pharmaceutical drug to prevent a candida yeast infection is ridiculous and should not be encouraged, so the Candida Crusher natural approach towards yeast infection eradication is the safest and most effective approach, it is drug and side effect free and will ensure a complete and permanent eradication if followed carefully.
The most important key factor in successful entrepreneurship is self-knowledge. 6th International Conference on Mycology and Fungal Infections aims to convey together all existing and budding bio entrepreneurs to share experiences and present new innovations and challenges in microbiological community. Every year, over a million companies are started in the world with about 5–10 of them classified as high technology companies.
Turning ideas into business ventures is tricky and the opportunity-recognition step is critical in new venture creation. This gestalt in the entrepreneur's perception of the relationship between the invention and final product is refined into a business model that describes how the venture will make money or provide an appropriate return to the potential investors. Biological science is complex and rapidly changing and requires a specialized knowledge to understand the value of the innovation and its competitive position in the industry.
Although life scientists are typically the founders of biotech companies, studies have shown that the most successful high tech startups are founded by a team of two to three individuals with mixed backgrounds, substantial industry experience and a very clear market and product focus at founding. This three day community-wide conference will be a highly interactive forum that will bring experts in areas ranging from structural microbiology to signaling pathways to novel therapeutic approaches to the scientific hub.
In addition to our outstanding speakers, we will also showcase short talks and poster presentations from submitted abstracts. The speakers will discuss how microbes can be engineered to report using computational inputs from their local environment. This session will include combined efforts of cutting edge synthetic biology research to highlight the current state, challenges and future of engineered microbial communities.
The fungi that are responsible for causing diseases in humans, animals and plants are referred to as Pathogenic fungi. Many of pathogenic fungi are naked in nature although they are eukaryotic. Candida species, Aspergillus species, Cryptococcus species, Histoplasma species are pathogenic in nature.
Fungal diseases have contributed to death and disability in humans, triggered global wildlife extinctions and population declines, devastated agricultural crops, and altered forest ecosystem dynamics.
The past two decades have seen an increasing number of virulent infectious diseases in natural populations and managed landscapes. In both animals and plants, an unprecedented number of fungal and fungal-like diseases have recently caused some of the most severe die-offs and extinctions ever witnessed in wild species, and are jeopardizing food security. Human activity is intensifying fungal disease dispersal by modifying natural environments and thus creating new opportunities for evolution. We argue that nascent fungal infections will cause increasing attrition of biodiversity, with wider implications for human and ecosystem health, unless steps are taken to tighten biosecurity worldwide.