Bacterial and fungal interactions can form a range of physical associations that depend on various modes of molecular communication for their development and functioning. The combination of physical associations and molecular interactions between fungi and other microbes can result in a variety of different outcomes for each partner. In turn, these changes may affect the influence of the fungal-microbe complex. Applications are found in various biological fields i.e. Food processing, fermentation and brewing, cheese ripening, bioremediation of pollutants, natural product discovery and synthetic biology.